Battle Of Pinkie
- HER number: MEL69
- Site Name: Battle Of Pinkie
- Grid Reference: 336100 671499
- Civil Parish:
- Monument Type:
- Battlefield (Post Medieval)
- Summary: Site of the Battle of Pinkie, 10th Sept. 1547
- Description: NT37SE 38 361 715.
(1) (Name: NT 361 715) Site of the (NAT) Battle of Pinkie (NR) 10th September 1547 (NAT) OS 1:10000 map (1973)
(2) The battle of Pinkie was fought between an English army, led by Protector Somerset, and a Scottish army under the Earl of Arran, their numbers being as indicated by Groome (1901). A skirmish was fought on the 9th September 1547 at the E end of Musselburgh links, and the main battle was fought the following day, the armies taking up the positions shown on plan. The Scottish army was routed. The Ordnance Survey Name Book [ONB] (3) refers to large quantities of human bones, pieces of spears, swords, horse-shoes and officers' epaulettes having been found in the area indicated.
W Patton; Name Book 1853; OS 6" map (1855)
(4) A desk based assessment was undertaken by the Battlefields Trust on behalf of Historic Scotland, as part of a national appraisal of Scotland's most important battlesites. The GIS polygon reflects the 'extended search area' of the assessment for this battlesite.
(5) Between April and August 2007 archaeological works were undertaken by AOC Archaeology Group on a 15 hectare land parcel at Gula Flats, Salters Road, Wallyford, East Lothian. The works were commissioned by Sirius Sports and Leisure Ltd as part of a three phase exploration of the archaeological potential of the site. Of principal note was the juxtaposition of the site to the Battle of Pinkie.
An initial metal detecting survey using volunteers from the S.A.R.G metal detecting club recovered 150 metal objects which included 15 lead shot of various sizes some of which may be associated with the battle. Other finds included two probable cannon shots, possible arrowheads, 18th/19th century coins and tokens, and an 19th century military
A subsequent test pitting programme involving the excavation of 100 1m2 test pits were informed by the distribution of the artefacts recovered during the initial metal detecting survey. A further 50 metal artefacts were retrieved including buttons, coins and nails. Large amounts of Victorian and modern ceramics were noted but not recovered. No lithic artefacts or prehistoric ceramics were found.
The intrusive archaeological evaluation targeted areas of possible archaeological interest illustrated by the surveys but did not uncover a\ny features that could be clearly related to the battle. A number of prehistoric and Roman features were found across the site along with a large number of isolated pit features of unknown date and function.
A further programme of metal detecting was undertaken as part of the intrusive evaluation phase. This produced a further 297 metal artefacts including the firing mechanism of a cap and ball pistol.
(6 & 7) Between February and March 2012 CFA Archaeology undertook an evaluation and metal-detecting survey at Pinkie Mains Farm, Nusselburgh. The area lies within the site of the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, 1547, and its western edge was within a Military Barracks complex which went out of use sometime before 1854. A group of lead musket balls and various military buttons were recovered. Although the musket balls can range in date from the post medieval to the early modern they were mostly grouped in the area previously occupied by the Barracks and were most likely from that period rather than the earlier Battle. It is likely that many other finds are related to the military use of the site, including those relating to dress fittings such as the regimental buttons, machinery or pieces which have been preliminarily identified as fittings, whilst others may relate to later use of the site as farmland.
A trial trenching evaluation covering 7% of the development area was carried out, amounting to 7600m2. Surfaces, walls and drains were exposed within trenches to the west of Pinkie Mains Farm and these appear to relate to a 19th century military barracks complex visible on the 1832 map. Mining and quarrying activity was also recorded in a number of locations within the site. A pit containing cremated human remains was recorded.
(8) In 2005 and 2006 ELCAS undertook a series of formal metal detector surveys on two fields to the immediate west and south-west of Barbachlaw Farm, Wallyford (Fig 1) with the assistance of the Scottish Detector Club and the Scottish Artefact Recovery Group. The two fields are situated within the 16th century Battle of Pinkie (1547) landscape and within what is believed to be the core area of conflict. A total of four surveys were undertaken under different vegetation conditions. A large number of artefacts were recovered, a small percentage of which were comprised of artillery shot and interpreted as being associated with the Battle of Pinkie.
(9) In May 2014 AOC Archaeology undertook an archaeological metal detecting survey on a 1.2 hectare land parcel prior to the development of the Victory Lane car park which is associated with the Greyhound Stadium at Gula Flats, Wallyford. The metal detecting survey recovered 20 metal artefacts and two gun flints. The metal finds included a Victorian farthing and token, several buttons of
probable 19th/20th century date, possible horse harness equipment, an iron tool as well as a lead seal and possible decorative mount. The majority of the metal detected finds are relatively modern. Further analysis on two lead objects recovered from the survey demonstrates that they relate to the 18th or 19th century, and are not related to the battle.
(10-11) In November and December 2013 CFA Archaeology undertook a trial trench evaluation and metal detecting survey at Pinkie Mains in advance of a residential development. This area is considered to be part of the core search area for archaeological evidence associated with the Battle of Pinkie which was fought on the 10th September 1547 between an English army led by Protector Somerset and a Scottish army under the Earl of Arran.
The metal detecting survey led to the recovery of 25 lead musket balls, which were interpreted as being likely associated with later recreational hunting or the nearby Napoleonic Barracks which lay to the northwest of the site. All other finds recovered were identified as being modern in date.
Trial trenching uncovered a large number of drainage features relating to 18th/19th century agricultural improvements. The majority of these were rubble drains and ceramic horseshoe drains, but two stone box drains and a large linear ditch feature were also recorded. The location of the linear ditch feature relates to a field boundarydepicted on early Ordnance Survey map editions. Vestigial traces of rig and furrow were also found. There was no evidence of any features associated with the Battle of Pinkie.
(12-13) During February 2016, AOC undertook a monitored topsoil strip and metal detecting survey of two areas measuring 25m x 25m and 15 x 15m respectively. Features encountered during the topsoil strip were then subsequently excavated. The archaeological work follows on from a trial trench evaluation in 2002 which encountered a number of linear and curvilinear features, initially interpreted as the remains of a possible settlement of later prehistoric date. The evaluation work also found and excavated a cist, and some postholes and pits. The topsoil strip revealed a number of field systems and pits/postholes which most likely form part of a gate for stock control. No finds were recovered from the features meaning no exact date could be associated with any of the features. A metal detecting survey was also undertaken due to the location of the stripped area within the Battle of Pinkie. This was undertaken in shallow spits and earth was machined away. No metal finds were identified during the topsoil stripping.
(14) During November and March 2014, AOC undertook an excavation at three sites (Sites 1, 8 and 9) identified during previous archaeological evaluation work undertaken in 2008 and 2009 in relation to a housing development. An area around each identified site was topsoil-stripped and exposed archaeological remains were then excavated and recorded. Sites 8 and 9 lie within Area 4, which was subject to metal detecting survey as part of the archaeological works. The survey recovered 51 objects, including four artefacts which may relate to the 1547 Battle of Pinkie. These included a musket ball, a sprigged pistol shot and two impacted musket balls.
- For more information contact: East Lothian Council HER
- Related Interventions:
- Metal Detecting and Field-walking Survey at Wallyford Settlement Expansion Project, EEL579
- Metal detecting at Gula Flats, EEL689
- Geophysical Survey at Gula Flats, EEL690
- Test pit survey at Gula Flats, EEL691
- Evaluation at Gula Flats, EEL692
- Evaluation and metal detecting survey at Pinkie Mains Musselburgh, EEL725
- Metal detector surveys at Barbachlaw Stadium, EEL736
- Metal Detector Survey at Victory Stadium Gula Flats, EEL795
- Trial trench evaluation and metal detecting at Pinkie Mains, EEL897
- Excavation and metal detecting survey at Victory Lane, Tranent, EEL906
- Metal survey Area 4 and Excavation at Sites 1, 8 and 9: Wallyford Expansion Settlement Project, EEL950
- Related Places:
- Associated Periods:
- Unpublished document: Anderson, S. 2007. Settlement Expansion Project, Wallyford, East Lothian: Metal Detector Survey 2007. Data Structure Report.
- Bibliographic reference: Foard, G & Knox. 2008. Lead munitions and other metal finds from the CFA Investigation at Wallyford in 2005 & 2007 of part of Pinkie battlefield.
- Bibliographic reference: Starley, D & Rimer, G. 2008. Royal Armouries Analysis Record.
- Bibliographic reference: Foard, G. 2008. Lead munitions and other metal finds from the CFA Investigation at Wallyford in 2008 of part of Pinkie battlefield (Draft).
- Bibliographic reference: Ross, A et al. 2008. Report on Pinkie Battlefield.
- Bibliographic reference: Patten, W. 1798. 'The expedicioun into Scotlande', in J G Dalyell, Fragments of Scottish history.
- Unpublished document: unknown. 2004?. Battle of Pinkie.
- Digital archive: McLaren, D. 2014. Wallyford, East Lothian: Further work on finds from metal detector survey.
- Digital archive: AOC Archaeology Group. 2008. Archaeological Investigations at Gula Flats, East Lothian.
- Bibliographic reference: Engl, R. 2007b. 'Barbachlaw, Salters Road, Wallyford, East Lothian (Inveresk parish), field survey and evaluation', Discovery and Excavation, Scotland, 8, 2007, 72, Cathedral Communications Limited, Wiltshire, England.. 72.
- Bibliographic reference: Whyte, I D. 1988. Discovering East Lothian. 77-80.
- Bibliographic reference: Groome, F H (ed.). 1901. Ordnance gazetteer of Scotland, New edition. 1332.
- (10) Unpublished document: Kirby, M. 2014. Pinkie Mains (Phases 3 and 4), Musselburgh, East Lothian: Archaeological Evaluation.
- (11) Unpublished document: Carruthers, G & Hills, S. 2014. Pinkie Mains (Phases 3 and 4), Musselburgh, East Lothian: Archaeological Metal Detecting Survey.
- (12) Unpublished document: Wilson, S & Oleksy, V. 2016. Victory Lane, Wallyford, East Lothian: Data Strucutre Report.
- (13) Digital archive: Wilson, S & Oleksy, V. 2016. Victory Lane, Wallyford, East Lothian: Data Strucutre Report.
- (14) Unpublished document: Engl, R. 2014. Wallyford Expansion (Areas 1 & 4), East Lothian: Archaeological Works.
- (3) Bibliographic reference: Name Book (County). Original Name Books of the Ordnance Survey. Book No.8, 12.
- (4) Unpublished document: Foard, G and Partida, T. 2005. Scotland's Historic Fields of Conflict.
- (5) Digital archive: AOC Archaeology Group. 2008. Archaeological Investigations at Gula Flats, East Lothian.
- (6) Unpublished document: McCaig, A & Suddaby, I. 2012. Pinkie Mains, Musselburgh: Archaeological Evaluation.
- (7) Unpublished document: Carruthers, G & Anderson, S. 2012. Pinkie Mains, East Lothian: Archaeological Metal Detecting Survey.
- (7) Unpublished document: Carruthers, G & Hills, S. 2014. Pinkie Mains (Phases 3 and 4), Musselburgh, East Lothian: Archaeological Metal Detecting Survey.
- (8) Digital archive: Simpson, B. 2011. Barbachlaw Stadium DSR and digital data.
- (9) Unpublished document: Engl, R & Mclaren, D. 2014. Victory Stadium, Gula Flats, Wallyford: Archaeological Metal Detecting Survey Data Structure Report.
- (9) Digital archive: Engl, R & Mclaren, D. 2014. Victory Stadium, Gula Flats, Wallyford: Archaeological Metal Detecting Survey Data Structure Report.